The zero-day exploits of Operation WizardOpium – 10 minute mail

Back in October 2019 we detected a classic watering-hole attack on a North Korea-related news site that exploited a chain of Google Chrome and Microsoft Windows zero-days. While we’ve already published blog posts briefly describing this operation (available here and here), in this blog post we’d like to take a deep technical dive into the exploits and vulnerabilities used in this attack.

Google Chrome remote code execution exploit

In the original blog post we described the exploit loader responsible for initial validation of the target and execution of the next stage JavaScript code containing the full browser exploit. The exploit is huge because, besides code, it contains byte arrays with shellcode, a Portable Executable (PE) file and WebAssembly (WASM) module used in the later stages of exploitation. The exploit abused a vulnerability in the WebAudio OfflineAudioContext interface and was targeting two release builds of Google Chrome 76.0.3809.87 and 77.0.3865.75. However, the vulnerability was introduced long before that and much earlier releases with a WebAudio component are also vulnerable. At the time of our discovery the current version of Google Chrome was 78, and while this version was also affected, the exploit did not support it and had a number of checks to ensure that it would only be executed on affected versions to prevent crashes. After our report, the vulnerability was assigned CVE-2019-13720 and was fixed in version 78.0.3904.87 with the following commit. A use-after-free (UAF) vulnerability, it could be triggered due to a race condition between the Render and Audio threads:

As you can see, when the audio buffer is set to null in ConvolverNode and an active buffer already exists within the Reverb object, the function SetBuffer() can destroy reverb_ and shared_buffer_ objects.

These objects might still be in use by the Render thread because there is no proper synchronization between the two threads in the code. A patch added two missing locks (graph lock and process lock) for when the buffer is nullified.

The exploit code was obfuscated, but we were able to fully reverse engineer it and reveal all the small details. By looking at the code, we can see the author of the exploit has excellent knowledge of the internals of specific Google Chrome components, especially the PartitionAlloc memory allocator. This can clearly be seen from the snippets of reverse engineered code below. These functions are used in the exploit to retrieve useful information from internal structures of the allocator, including: SuperPage address, PartitionPage address by index inside the SuperPage, the index of the used PartitionPage and the address of PartitionPage metadata. All constants are taken from partition_alloc_constants.h:

It’s interesting that the exploit also uses the relatively new built-in BigInt class to handle 64-bit values; authors usually use their own primitives in exploits.

At first, the code initiates OfflineAudioContext and creates a huge number of IIRFilterNode objects that are initialized via two float arrays.

After that, the exploit begins the initial stage of exploitation and tries to trigger a UAF bug. For that to work the exploit creates the objects that are needed for the Reverb component. It creates another huge OfflineAudioContext object and two ConvolverNode objects – ScriptProcessorNode to start audio processing and AudioBuffer for the audio channel.

This function is executed recursively. It fills the audio channel buffer with zeros, starts rendering offline and at the same time runs a loop that nullifies and resets the channel buffer of the ConvolverNode object and tries to trigger a bug. The exploit uses the later() function to simulate the Sleep function, suspend the current thread and let the Render and Audio threads finish execution right on time:

During execution the exploit checks if the audio channel buffer contains any data that differs from the previously set zeroes. The existence of such data would mean the UAF was triggered successfully and at this stage the audio channel buffer should contain a leaked pointer.

The PartitionAlloc memory allocator has a special exploit mitigation that works as follows: when the memory region is freed, it byteswaps the address of the pointer and after that the byteswapped address is added to the FreeList structure. This complicates exploitation because the attempt to dereference such a pointer will crash the process. To bypass this technique the exploit uses the following primitive that simply swaps the pointer back:

The exploit uses the leaked pointer to get the address of the SuperPage structure and verifies it. If everything goes to plan, then it should be a raw pointer to a temporary_buffer_ object of the ReverbConvolverStage class that is passed to the callback function initialUAFCallback.

The exploit uses the leaked pointer to get the address of the raw pointer to the feedforward_ array with the AudioArray type that is present in the IIRProcessor object created with IIRFilterNode. This array should be located in the same SuperPage, but in different versions of Chrome this object is created in different PartitionPages and there is a special code inside initialUAFCallback to handle that.

The vulnerability is actually triggered not once but twice. After the address of the right object is acquired, the vulnerability is exploited again. This time the exploit uses two AudioBuffer objects of different sizes, and the previously retrieved address is sprayed inside the larger AudioBuffer. This function also executes recursively.

This time the exploit uses the function getFrequencyResponse() to check if exploitation was successful. The function creates an array of frequencies that is filled with a Nyquist filter and the source array for the operation is filled with zeroes.

If the resulting array contains a value other than π, it means exploitation was successful. If that’s the case, the exploit stops its recursion and executes the function finalUAFCallback to allocate the audio channel buffer again and reclaim the previously freed memory. This function also repairs the heap to prevent possible crashes by allocating various objects of different sizes and performing defragmentation of the heap. The exploit also creates BigUint64Array, which is used later to create an arbitrary read/write primitive.

Heap defragmentation is performed with multiple calls to the improvised collectGarbage function that creates a huge ArrayBuffer in a loop.

After those steps, the exploit executes the function kickPayload() passing the previously created BigUint64Array containing the raw pointer address of the previously freed AudioArray’s data.

The exploit manipulates the PartitionPage metadata of the freed object to achieve the following behavior. If the address of another object is written in BigUint64Array at index zero and if a new 8-byte object is created and the value located at index 0 is read back, then a value located at the previously set address will be read. If something is written at index 0 at this stage, then this value will be written to the previously set address instead.

After the building of the arbitrary read/write primitives comes the final stage – executing the code. The exploit achieves this by using a popular technique that exploits the Web Assembly (WASM) functionality. Google Chrome currently allocates pages for just-in-time (JIT) compiled code with read/write/execute (RWX) privileges and this can be used to overwrite them with shellcode. At first, the exploit initiates a “dummy” WASM module and it results in the allocation of memory pages for JIT compiled code.

To execute the exported function wasmFuncA, the exploit creates a FileReader object. When this object is initiated with data it creates a FileReaderLoader object internally. If you can parse PartitionAlloc allocator structures and know the size of the next object that will be allocated, you can predict which address it will be allocated to. The exploit uses the getPartitionPageFreeListHeadEntryBySlotSize() function with the provided size and gets the address of the next free block that will be allocated by FileReaderLoader.

The exploit obtains this address twice to find out if the FileReaderLoader object was created and if the exploit can continue execution. The exploit sets the exported WASM function to be a callback for a FileReader event (in this case, an onerror callback) and because the FileReader type is derived from EventTargetWithInlineData, it can be used to get the addresses of all its events and the address of the JIT compiled exported WASM function.

The variable stubAddr contains the address of the page with the stub code that jumps to the JIT compiled WASM function. At this stage it’s sufficient to overwrite it with shellcode. To do so, the exploit uses the function getPartitionPageFreeListHeadEntryBySlotSize() again to find the next free block of 0x20 bytes, which is the size of the structure for the ArrayBuffer object. This object is created when the exploit creates a new audio buffer.

The exploit uses arbitrary read/write primitives to get the address of the DataHolder class that contains the raw pointer to the data and size of the audio buffer. The exploit overwrites this pointer with stubAddr and sets a huge size.

Now all that’s needed is to implant a Uint8Array object into the memory of this audio buffer and place shellcode there along with the Portable Executable that will be executed by the shellcode.

To prevent the possibility of a crash the exploit clears the pointer to the top of the FreeList structure used by the PartitionPage.

Now, in order to execute the shellcode, it’s enough to call the exported WASM function.

Microsoft Windows elevation of privilege exploit

The shellcode appeared to be a Reflective PE loader for the Portable Executable module that was also present in the exploit. This module mostly consisted of the code to escape Google Chrome’s sandbox by exploiting the Windows kernel component win32k for the elevation of privileges and it was also responsible for downloading and executing the actual malware. On closer analysis, we found that the exploited vulnerability was in fact a zero-day. We notified Microsoft Security Response Center and they assigned it CVE-2019-1458 and fixed the vulnerability. The win32k component has something of bad reputation. It has been present since Windows NT 4.0 and, according to Microsoft, it is responsible for more than 50% of all kernel security bugs. In the last two years alone Kaspersky has found five zero-days in the wild that exploited win32k vulnerabilities. That’s quite an interesting statistic considering that since the release of Windows 10, Microsoft has implemented a number of mitigations aimed at complicating exploitation of win32k vulnerabilities and the majority of zero-days that we found exploited versions of Microsoft Windows prior to the release of Windows 10 RS4. The elevation of privilege exploit used in Operation WizardOpium was built to support Windows 7, Windows 10 build 10240 and Windows 10 build 14393. It’s also important to note that Google Chrome has a special security feature called Win32k lockdown developed and supported by James Forshaw of Google Project Zero. This security feature eliminates the whole win32k attack surface by disabling access to win32k syscalls from inside Chrome processes. Unfortunately, Win32k lockdown is only supported on machines running Windows 10. So, it’s fair to assume that Operation WizardOpium targeted users running Windows 7.

CVE-2019-1458 is an Arbitrary Pointer Dereference vulnerability. In win32k Window objects are represented by a tagWND structure. There are also a number of classes based on this structure: ScrollBar, Menu, Listbox, Switch and many others. The FNID field of tagWND structure is used to distinguish the type of class. Different classes also have various extra data appended to the tagWND structure. This extra data is basically just different structures that often include kernel pointers. Besides that, in the win32k component there’s a syscall SetWindowLongPtr that can be used to set this extra data (after validation of course). It’s worth noting that SetWindowLongPtr was related to a number of vulnerabilities in the past (e.g., CVE-2010-2744, CVE-2016-7255, and CVE-2019-0859). There’s a common issue when pre-initialized extra data can lead to system procedures incorrectly handling. In the case of CVE-2019-1458, the validation performed by SetWindowLongPtr was just insufficient.

A check for the index parameter would have prevented this bug, but prior to the patch the values for FNID_DESKTOP, FNID_SWITCH, FNID_TOOLTIPS inside the mpFnid_serverCBWndProc table were not initialized, rendering this check useless and allowing the kernel pointers inside the extra data to be overwritten.

Triggering the bug is quite simple: at first, you create a Window, then NtUserMessageCall can be used to call any system class window procedure.

It’s important to provide the right message and dwType parameters. The message needs to be equal to WM_CREATE. dwType is converted to fnIndex internally with the following calculation: (dwType + 6) & 0x1F. The exploit uses a dwType equal to 0xE0. It results in an fnIndex equal to 6 which is the function index of xxxSwitchWndProc and the WM_CREATE message sets the FNID field to be equal to FNID_SWITCH.

The vulnerability in NtUserSetWindowLongPtr can then be used to overwrite the extra data at index zero, which happens to be a pointer to a structure containing information about the Switch Window. In other words, the vulnerability makes it possible to set some arbitrary kernel pointer that will be treated as this structure.

At this stage it’s enough to call NtUserMessageCall again, but this time with a message equal to WM_ERASEBKGND. This results in the execution of the function xxxPaintSwitchWindow that increments and decrements a couple of integers located by the pointer that we previously set.

An important condition for triggering the exploitable code path is that the ALT key needs to be pressed.

Exploitation is performed by abusing Bitmaps. For successful exploitation a few Bitmaps need to be allocated next to each other, and their kernel addresses need to be known. To achieve this, the exploit uses two common kernel ASLR bypass techniques. For Windows 7 and Windows 10 build 10240 (Threshold 1) the Bitmap kernel addresses are leaked via the GdiSharedHandleTable technique: in older versions of the OS there is a special table available in the user level that holds the kernel addresses of all GDI objects present in the process. This particular technique was patched in Windows 10 build 14393 (Redstone 1), so for this version the exploit uses another common technique that abuses Accelerator Tables (patched in Redstone 2). It involves creating a Create Accelerator Table object, leaking its kernel address from the gSharedInfo HandleTable available in the user level, and then freeing the Accelerator Table object and allocating a Bitmap reusing the same memory address.

The whole exploitation process works as follows: the exploit creates three bitmaps located next to each other and their addresses are leaked. The exploit prepares Switch Window and uses a vulnerability in NtUserSetWindowLongPtr to set an address pointing near the end of the first Bitmap as Switch Window extra data. Bitmaps are represented by a SURFOBJ structure and the previously set address needs to be calculated in a way that will make the xxxPaintSwitchWindow function increment the sizlBitmap field of the SURFOBJ structure for the Bitmap allocated next to the first one. The sizlBitmap field indicates the bounds of the pixel data buffer and the incremented value will allow the use of the function SetBitmapBits() to perform an out-of-bounds write and overwrite the SURFOBJ of the third Bitmap object.

The pvScan0 field of the SURFOBJ structure is an address of the pixel data buffer, so the ability to overwrite it with an arbitrary pointer results in arbitrary read/write primitives via the functions GetBitmapBits()/SetBitmapBits(). The exploit uses these primitives to parse the EPROCESS structure and steal the system token. To get the kernel address of the EPROCESS structure, the exploit uses the function EnumDeviceDrivers. This function works according to its MSDN description and it provides a list of kernel addresses for currently loaded drivers. The first address in the list is the address of ntkrnl and to get the offset to the EPROCESS structure the exploit parses an executable in search for the exported PsInitialSystemProcess variable.

It’s worth noting that this technique still works in the latest versions of Windows (tested with Windows 10 19H1 build 18362). Stealing the system token is the most common post exploitation technique that we see in the majority of elevation of privilege exploits. After acquiring system privileges the exploit downloads and executes the actual malware.

Conclusions

It was particularly interesting for us to examine the Chrome exploit because it was the first Google Chrome in-the-wild zero-day encountered for a while. It was also interesting that it was used in combination with an elevation of privilege exploit that didn’t allow exploitation on the latest versions of Windows mostly due to the Win32k lockdown security feature of Google Chrome. With regards to privilege elevation, it was also interesting that we found another 1-day exploit for this vulnerability just one week after the patch, indicating how simple it is to exploit this vulnerability.

We would like to thank the Google Chrome and Microsoft security teams for fixing these vulnerabilities so quickly. Google was generous enough to offer a bounty for CVE-2019-13720. The reward was donated to charity and Google matched the donation.


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Top 40 Best Google Chrome Extensions and Apps of 2020 April – 10 minute mail

In Short Hacks: Google Chrome is a web market in itself. Yes! But many of us is not aware of it. Don’t we have any idea what Google Chrome browser can do? To make your Google Chrome SMARTER, FASTER and INTELLIGENT then you need to install these must have Top 40 Best Google Chrome Extensions On your Chrome browser and enhance your browsing experience. You can download and install all these best Chrome extensions/apps from the list that we have listed below.

Top (40+) Best Google Chrome Extensions/Apps Of 2017
Top (40+) Best Google Chrome Extensions/Apps Of 2017

Google Chrome is one of the most widely used search engine around the world! However, no everyone uses 100% of what Google Chrome has to offer. To make the 100% use of Google Chrome, one can add different extensions from the Chrome Web Store. There are numerous extensions one can use which are available in the Chrome Web Store.

These extensions add too much power to Google Chrome. These extensions are only compatible with Windows, OS X, Linux, and Chrome OS-based devices such as Chromebook laptops. These extensions are supported on mobile phone-based Google Chrome neither for Android nor iOS users. So let’s take a look at some of the very useful extensions which you can add to your Google Chrome.

Also Read: Top 20+ Best Google Chromecast Apps for Android, iOS & PC

Best Google Chrome Extensions Of 2020 (Free)


#1 Unlimited Free VPN: Hola 

This Google Chrome extension provides you with a Virtual Private Network (VPN) using which you can view any blocked websites, and your identity will also be protected.

#2 Adblock Plus | Best Googe Chrome Extensions

This is another great extension for Google Chrome. It cleans the web pages which you browse by removing every advertisement which you see on the page.

Adblock Plus for Google Chrome can Blocks:

  • Banners
  • YouTube video ads
  • Facebook advertisements
  • Pop-ups
  • All other obtrusive ads

#3 Evernote Web Clipper

This Google Chrome extension saves notes, web pages, images, and anything you want to save. Only a single click is required to save things via Evernote web clipper.

Features: 

  • Clip Gmail threads and attachments
  • Use text and visual callouts to draw attention
  • Use Evernote to find clips on any device

#4 Google Dictionary

This Google Chrome extension is for those who often some across words which are hard to understand. All you need to do is double click on the word whose meaning you want to know. Different languages are supported by this extension.

#5 Awesome Screenshot | Best Chrome Extensions

This Google Chrome extension allows you to take screenshots, edit them by using effects such as blur and annotations etc. Also, you can upload these screenshots on image sharing websites and share them with ease. This extension is quite small in size.

#6 StayFocused

People often get distracted by sites such as Facebook, Twitter, etc. StayFocused is a Google Chrome extension that can be used to set the time limit for the time spent by you on these websites. Also, you can set the time limit for a particular website.

Features:

  • A self-motivated and interesting method to help you beat Internet addiction
  • Cultivate your personal pattern of time management: make good use of 30-minutes to fully concentrate on your work and finish it effectively
  • Share your trees with friends

When you reach the end of the result page in Google, you have to click on an option to go to another page. This Google Chrome extension automatically brings up the next page when you come to the end of a page.

#8 Hover Zoom | Best Chrome Apps

Add the name suggests, this Google Chrome extension shows a full-size image when you hover over a small size image. One can use this extension while browsing an image gallery. This extension also provides an option that allows you to resize images and another option that disables zooming in specific websites, etc.

Also Read: 192.168.1.1 Login Page, Username, Password, and WiFi Settings

#9 The Great Suspender

This Google Chrome extension suspends the tabs which are not in use currently. On doing this, you save a considerable amount of RAM which is being used and thereby decreasing the chances of the system getting crashed.

#10 Musixmatch Lyrics For YouTube

This Google Chrome extension displays the lyrics of the video you are watching on YouTube in correspondence. Also, it comes with a customizable font committee, background, etc.

#11 Honey

This Google Chrome extension reduces your workload while shopping online by providing an option which finds the best coupon codes from when and uses them wherever possible. All you need to do is click on this extension before checking out and leave the rest on this extension.

#12 Google URL Shortener

This Google Chrome extension is for those who frequently share links with their friends or family. What it does is shorten the length of a URL just by a single click.

#13 Save to Pocket

This Google Chrome extension allows you to save articles or any web content to be accessed offline. You can save content by a click on the toolbar or adding a shortcut.

#14 LastPass

This Google Chrome extension sets a master password for all your different passwords. It is the best solution for those who have too many passwords to remember.

Features:

  • Store login usernames and passwords
  • Checkout fast by adding credit cards & shopping profiles
  • Attach docs, PDFs, images, audio, and more
  •  Save any piece of data you need to keep secure and accessible
  • Manage everything from a simple, searchable “password vault

#15 Meme Cart: Make Your Own Meme!

As the name suggests, this Google Chrome extension allows you to create your own Meme.

Features:

  • A simple to use Meme Creator
  • Make a meme without a watermark
  • Auto Text Resize Feature

#16 uBlock Origin

uBlock Origin is another effective and best chrome extension for blocking interrupting content from your web browsing path! Using the plugin, you can get rid of ads, in an effective way. you can use this extension for free to block ads on browser

#17 Google Calendar

Google Calendar extension brings a simple Google Chrome toolbar button, using which you can create or add events as you browse the web. Suppose there are details of an event in a web page you visit and you want to create an event-based reminder about it. This extension is best if you guys are using the computer or internet too much or you are busy with your internet lifestyle.

Also Read: Discord Overlay Not Working – 6 Methods to Fix

#18 Boomerang for Gmail

Boomerang for Gmail is actually an email scheduling service that is available as a Chrome extension.There is also an option to postpone the arrival of some messages, so that your email inbox will stay clean and you will see the message only when it’s really the best time.

#19 Google Bookmark Manager

Bookmarks are the helpful space in every browser. Google Chrome comes with satisfactory in-built bookmark manager but it may not be powerful enough to give you a visual feel of it.You have some additional options such as the one to add a note with each of your bookmarks, and the one to create folders and sub-folders easily.

#20 Session Buddy

This is the most powerful Chrome tab management extensions that are available right now.It constantly keeps the check on the active browsing sessions and lets you save or restore them by just a click. You can download this best chrome extension directly from below link

#21 Discoverly | Best Chrome Extensions

Discoverly is a brilliant effort to bring Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn together in an efficient manner.It analyzes social media profile pages you visit and uses data to find that person’s other social media accounts, including Twitter, LinkedIn, and Facebook, etc. This one is my favorite Chrome extension as of now.

#22 ColorZilla

ColorZilla is an extension that’d be useful for designers and developers who are conscious about the colors they use & find. All these capabilities are brought in one tool, with an incredibly low size and resource consumption. There are some developer-oriented features such as keyboard shortcuts, palette viewer, etc.

#23 Google Quick Scroll

Google quick ball helps you to find any result including google search engine quickly and accurately. as this extension is developed by Googe itself. Google quick ball scroll extension helps you find out the relevant part by clicking on a link that is shown on right-bottom part of the page. For those who need crisp results in shorter time, Google Quick Scroll will be useful. you can download and install this extension from below link.

#24 I’m a Gentleman

This one is Must have Chrome extension app for those who are addicted to downloading a large number of images. This extension let you help in managing all your images in a great manner. To do that, you have to Hold the ‘Alt’ button and click on the image. In seconds, the image will be downloaded to your PC.

#25 HTTPS Everywhere

HTTPS stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol with Secure Socket Layer (SSL). We all know that HTTPS is the mark of trust flow and confidential secure. This extension helps you to check whether the website is secure from SSL or not? So i recommend this extension to use on your chrome browser for free.

#26 Blur

Blur is a companion you really need when living in a world of privacy threats and online frauds! By means of Blur, it’s possible for you to do different things, such as managing your passwords, securing online payments you make and to have better privacy options by acting against tracking and all. So try this extension for free and download it from below’s link.

#27 Desktop Notification For Android

This is one of the best Chrome extensions in chrome web store available for free. As this extension is directly linked with the app desktop notification for Android which allows you to get all your Android notification on your browser screen. This extension help you to see your android device notification on desktop and vice-versa.

#28 Weather | Best Chrome Extensions

This extension is very useful for the users who regularly checks the weather. This extension will show you all the weather forecast from the main server by accessing your location from the Google Chrome. You can also check the 30-day forecast by visiting the main site of extension. Simply download this extension from below link.

#29 TooMany Tabs

By using this app, you can open many tabs in one Chrome window. This extension is best for those who are doing substantial work on a google chrome web browser.

Features:

  • Clear preview of each tab’s content (fills up gradually as you use)
  • Instant tab search
  • Sort tabs by creation time, domain or title
  • Restore recently closed tabs

#30 Pushbullet

Pushbullet brings your Android Smartphone to your desktop — to your Chrome screen, exactly! Using Pushbullet, it’s possible for you to manage a lot of sections of your Android phone, such as messages, songs, photos, links etc.

Features:

  • Deal with notifications on your computer as they arrive.
  • Easily share links and files between your devices, or with friends
  • Reply to messages from many popular apps including WhatsApp, Kik, and Facebook Messenger (requires Android)

#31 ThoughtQ EN Edu | Best Chrome Extensions

This chrome extension is only for teachers and students. This is an Educational Chrome App. And it helps a lot if you are a student or a teacher. This app gather information for your essays and reports with less effort and in less time, while gaining greater knowledge.

#32 Checker Plus for Gmail™

This Chrome extension is best for Gmail users. By activating this chrome extension you can read, send all messages without opening your Gmail. The fastest and easiest way to manage multiple email accounts.

Features:

  • Supports Push Notifications
  • Supports Inbox by Gmail
  • Beautiful Material Design

#33 1Password | Best Chrome Apps

1Password’s Chrome extension is a vital companion to the password management software for Windows and Mac. Instead of making you memorize countless passwords, 1Password can generate a secure password for every site you use, and does the remembering for you.

#34 Coupons at Checkout

This is one of the great google chrome extensions for buyers, This extension let you help in Coupons at Checkout discovers those hard-to-find coupon codes for you, automatically, every time you shop online.

#35 Send to Kindle For Google Chrome

Send to Kindle renders web articles in a clean, ad-free view and sends them to the Kindle devices and apps of your choosing.

Features:

  • Select text from the web page and send it to your Kindle.
  • Edit the title and author of your document before sending.
  • Read anytime, everywhere on your Kindle devices and reading apps.

#36 Memorize! | Best Chrome Extensions For Students

Memorize! Is a lightweight application that helps you to remember extensive amounts of boring information. I have developed it for myself because I often lack the motivation to keep repeating for more than 10 minutes. This one is an amazing app that would help you to learn lots of new things and memorize faster

#37 Note Board  

Remember tasks writing sticky notes in a corkboard. Save pages to visit or capture easily any web content.

#38 My Study Life

My Study Life is a cross-platform planner for students, teachers and lecturers designed to make your study life easier to manage. My Study Life allows you to store your classes, home work and exams in the cloud making it available on any device, wherever you are.

#39 Mailtrack for Gmail & Inbox

#40 ContactOut

ContactOut is a simple browser extension that helps you find email addresses and phone numbers of anyone on LinkedIn. Just over three years and already have thousands of users from a third of the Fortune 500 (like Microsoft, PwC, and Symantec). ContactOut finds emails from 75% of Linkedin users (2x better than the next closest competitor) at a 97% accuracy rate. It’s earned us multiple mentions on the ahrefs blog as one of the best freemium email outreach tools available.

What’s Inside Chrome Web Store?

Final Words:

These were some of the Best Google Chrome extensions of 2020 one should have added on to their Google Chrome. If we have missed out on any of such amazing extension, please let us know in the comments section. If you like this amazing Top 40 Best Chrome Extensions List Then Do share it with your friends 🙂

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Google Confirm Two New High-Severity Vulnerabilities in Chrome 81 – Disposable mail news

The new Chrome 81 version released on April 7th by Google for Windows, Mac, and Linux primarily focused on security owing to the vulnerability users are subjected to due to the coronavirus pandemic. The launch of the update was delayed for similar reasons. It brought along new features, bug fixes, and over 30 security flaw patches from Google’s security researchers and some experts from outside.

The new Chrome 81 version is being promoted to the Stable channel, meanwhile, Chrome 83 and Chrome 84 will be promoted to the Beta version and the Canary version respectively. As per sources, Chrome 82 will be disregarded because of the COVID-19 charged atmosphere, and all progress from the version will be channelized into the subsequent version, Chrome 83.

While warning users of more security flaws in Chrome 81, Google confirms two new high-severity vulnerabilities infecting the web browser. As these new security exploits could allow hackers to run commands over an affected system by gaining unauthorized control, users worldwide are being advised by the U.S Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) to apply the latest update launched by the company in defense against these security vulnerabilities.

Both of the aforementioned security vulnerabilities were reported by Zhe Jin from Qihoo 360, a Chinese internet security services provider; for one of these, Jin received a bounty of $10,000 for CVE-2020-6462 which is a use-after-free error in the Chrome task scheduling component. The second one, CVE-2020-6461 was also of a similar use-after-free form but this one affected storage, according to the update notice from Prudhvikumar Bommana, Google Chome Technical Program Manager. 

Google has confirmed that the update will be pushed for all the users in the upcoming days and weeks, however, users are advised to remain proactive and keep looking up for updates to be applied manually by going to Help | About Google Chrome, where you can find the version you are currently running and an option to check for further updates. After installing the latest version, simply restart the web browser, and there you go being safeguarded against both the flaws.


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Google Stops Displaying Security Warnings in Microsoft Edge, No Longer Recommends Switching to Chrome – Disposable mail news

Google has stopped advising Microsoft Edge users to switch to Chrome for a more secure experience as the browser extensions crafted for Google’s Chrome web browser are also suitable for the new Microsoft’s new Edge browser based on Chromium.

It appeared like Google stoked the flames of browser wars when it subtly encouraged Edge users to shift to Chrome by displaying warnings of potential security threats. The alert displayed by Google read that it “recommends switching to Chrome to use extensions securely”. A developer at Edge revealed that the new Microsoft Edge is designed to effectively safeguard its users from malicious extensions, that said, Edge already had Windows Defender Smart Screen and Unwanted Application protection built-in.

Whenever a user visited the Chrome Web Store via the new Microsoft Edge, Google displayed a message in yellow at the top of the webpage recommending users to switch to Chrome in order to use extensions with added safety. However, seemingly, as soon as Google realized that greeting users with a warning message which clearly implied that Microsoft Edge is less secure of a browser is not making them look good, the tech giant softened and decided to take the alert down. Not only that, Google went a step ahead and replaced the previously displayed warning with a fresh one that tells users that now they can add extensions to Microsoft Edge from the Chrome Web Store.

However, still, officially only a few extensions are supported by Microsoft Edge as the installation of all these extensions for the first will seem to be a bit complex. Users need to enable ‘allow extensions’ from other stores via the settings page. On attempting to do that, Microsoft warns that it doesn’t verify extensions downloaded from third-party stores and cautions that doing the same may cause performance issues in Edge. Then it suggests users get verified extensions from Microsoft Edge add-ons site. As soon as the users allow extensions by clicking on ‘Allow’, they will be able to add extensions to Edge from Chrome Web Store.


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How To Use Color-Picker Tool in Google Chrome Browser (2020) – 10 minute mail

Choosing the right colors is one of the most important factors to consider while designing or creating a logo or any other picture! And Google Chrome is one of the most used web browsers to any developers and designers. Well, In this article we have discussed everything on How to use color picker tool in chrome with and without any extension.

How To Use Color Picker Tool in Google Chrome Web Browser
How To Use Color Picker Tool in Google Chrome Web Browser

There can be instances where you are surfing the internet and come across a particular website, which has an eye-catching color scheme. Since it is difficult to know that color just by looking at it, you need a tool to find it out!

One method which you can use is by inspecting the element using the DevTools and get the hex code or RGB value of the background color or font color. However, this method will be useless if the color is part of the logo of that website, which is a PNG.

In such situations, you can make use of an eyedropper tool. You can find more than 30 eye dropper tools online to choose from! You can add some of these tools as an extension to the chrome web browser.

However, you do not need to add any extension or use an online tool to find out about any color on chrome since the chrome web browser is equipped with an inbuilt color picker.

This color picker cannot be accessed directly as it is hidden away. However, you can follow the steps listed below to make use of chrome’s inbuilt color picker, to find out about any color scheme you find on chrome.

Also Read: How To Fix “Rats webGL Hit a Snag” in Chrome Browser 

Features of chrome’s inbuilt color picker include:

Apart from finding the information of a specific color on chrome, you can also make use of other features provided by chrome’s inbuilt color picker.

1. Shades- On the top half of the color picker, you will find a gradient area which you can use to choose different shades of your selected color.

2. Eyedropper- This is the tool which is primarily iced to select and find the information of any color you see on a website. You can click on the Eyedropper option to turn it on and off.

3. Copy To Clipboard- As the name suggests, it copies the Display Value to your clipboard so that it can be used later.

4. Display Value- This is the actual value of the color, in RGBA, HSLA or Hex format depending on the selected representation in the Display Value Switcher.

5. Display Value Switcher- This option in chrome’s color pocket allows its users to switch between a Material Design palette, a custom palette, and a page colors palette.

6. Hue- It is a slider, which allows the users to adjust the Hue of the selected color.

7. Opacity- Even this feature is a slider, which allows us, users, to adjust the Opacity of the selected color.

8. Color Palette- This is a palette of colors from which you can choose your colors by clicking on one of the options. Clicking on then will change the original color to the color of the selected option.

Also Read: How to Fix ERR_SPDY_PROTOCOL_ERROR in Chrome


Step 1- Right-click on the logo or part of the website which contains the color you wish to find out about and click on ‘Inspect‘ from the drop-down menu.How To Use Color Picker Tool in Google Chrome Web Browser

Step 2- On the right-hand side, in the styles tab of the developer tools, you will find a CSS style with a property of either color or background-color.

Step 3- To the left of color or background-color, you will notice a small square of color, which shows you a preview of the actual color applied to that style. Click on this small square of color to open up Chrome’s built-in color picker.How To Use Color Picker Tool in Google Chrome Web Browser

Step 4- When you first open the Color Picker, the Eyedropper tool will be enabled by default. Thus, all you need to do is, hover your mouse over the website whose color scheme you wish to find out and then, click on it to confirm.

Once you click on your target color, chrome’s inbuilt color picker will immediately show the value of the color in hex, which you can copy to your clipboard and use it to find all the information of that color.

Also Read: How To Access and Run TOR Network On Google Chrome 

Conclusion:

This is how you can use chrome’s inbuilt color picker to find out the information of any color you find on a website. You can also make use of other features provided by this color picker such as shades, color palette, etc.

If we have missed out on any such useful information regarding chrome’s inbuilt color picker, then please let us know about it in the comments section below. 🙂

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Google Chrome Extension, Shitcoin Wallet found stealing passwords and crypto-wallet keys – Disposable mail news


MyCrypto platform, reported that Shitcoin Wallet, a Google Chrome extension was injecting JavaScript code on web pages , in order to steal passwords and keys from cryptocurrency wallets.

 The extension, Shitcoin Wallet, Chrome extension ID: ckkgmccefffnbbalkmbbgebbojjogffn, was launched last month on December 9.

With Shitcoin Wallet, users managed their Ether (ETH) coins, and Ethereum ERC20-based tokens — tokens usually issued for ICOs (initial coin offerings) either from the browser or by installing a desktop app.

 Malicious Behavior with the extension

 Harry Denley, Director of Security at the MyCrypto platform, discovered that the chrome extension isn’t what it promises to be. He found malicious code within the extension.

In a blog, zdnet reported that, “According to Denley, the extension is dangerous to users in two ways. First, any funds (ETH coins and ERC0-based tokens) managed directly inside the extension are at risk.
 Second, the extension also actively injects malicious JavaScript code when users navigate to five well-known and popular cryptocurrency management platforms. “

 Danley, said that the extension traffics all the keys on its system to a third party website at erc20wallet[.]tk.

 The malicious code works by the following process

 1. The user install the chrome extension Shitcoin Wallet.
 2. The extension request permission to inject the malicious JavaScript code to 77 websites.
 3. If the user navigates to any of these 77 websites, it injects an additional code .
 4.The code activates on five websites: MyEtherWallet.com, Idex.Market, Binance.org, NeoTracker.io, and Switcheo.exchange
 5. After activation, the code saves the user’s login credentials, keys and other data then siphon it to a third party.

 It is not constructively clear yet if the Shitcoin Wallet team is responsible for the malicious behavior or a third party infiltrated the extension. Shitcoin Wallet team is silent on the allegations and have yet to give any comments on the matter.


 Desktop App

Both 32-bit and 64-bit installers are available for the user to download on the extension’s official website.
VirusTotal, a website that aggregates the virus scanning engines of several antivirus software makers, showed that both versions were clean.
But on a warning note, the desktop app may contain the code or something even worse.


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